All You Need To Know About Cataract Eye Surgery

What Are Cataracts?

Cataracts are the total or partial opacification of the lens (one of the two natural lenses that we have in the eye), progressively reducing vision. Cataracts are normally associated with age, although they can be congenital, caused by trauma or accelerated training in certain diseases, as well as after the intake of some medications. Usually, the loss of transparency of cataracts occurs progressively and slowly. So, it may not be noticeable for a long time, and one can get used to a visual acuity that is not really good enough. Therefore, its solution is exclusively surgical.

How Do I Know If I Have Cataract?

Cataract produces a progressive loss of vision from both far and near with the sensation of having blurred vision and halos around lights as well as an increasing discomfort when exposed to conditions of high luminosity.

Types Of Cataracts

The main types of cataracts are as follows:

  • Nuclear Cataract

A nuclear cataract occurs in the central zone of the lens. This cataract is mainly associated with age.

  • Cortical Cataract

This type of cataract occurs in the lens when small white opacities appear around the lens and begin to move towards the center radically.

  • Metabolic Cataract

A metabolic cataract occurs as a secondary consequence of metabolic diseases that produce singular substances in the lens that accelerate its opacification.

  • Congenital Cataract

A congenital cataract is when a child is born with a cataract. It can be unilateral or bilateral. Its cause is mainly hereditary and cannot be prevented. In this case, it is essential to make a diagnosis for the early detection of any type of ophthalmological condition from birth.

  • Traumatic Cataract

This type is associated with some eye injury, stroke, or bruise that can also damage other structures of the eye in greater or lesser severity.

  • Toxic Cataract

It can arise due to excessive abuse of drug intake or some types of toxic substances such as rye, corticosteroids, or paradichlorobenzene.

  • Radiation Cataract

It can occur as a result of long-term exposure to an explosion of ultraviolet, infrared, or ionizing radiation.

  • Secondary Falls

After a few months or even years, after surgical treatment by phacoemulsification of the cataract, the posterior lens capsule may become opacified. Therefore, a reduction in both distant and near vision is caused. It is what we call a secondary cataract. It is produced by a migration of the epithelial cells of the lens or anterior capsule to the posterior capsule.

Symptoms Of Cataracts

Over the years, the lens loses transparency and becomes opacified. So, age is the main cause of developing cataracts. Actually, the cataract is nothing more than the aging of the lens. Half of the population between 65 and 75 have cataracts. Moreover, there are diseases, such as diabetes, that can cause cataracts to develop at an earlier age.

The following are some symptoms that can be noticed when having a vision with cataracts. If we notice any of them, we must visit an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.

  • Sensation Of Blurred Vision

The main symptom of an eye with cataract is a cloudy vision that fails to correct itself with glasses. This fog prevents everyday activities such as reading, writing, or watching television. Since it is the most frequent symptom, it will be vital to go to a specialist as soon as possible to prevent the cataract from advancing and leading to a more severe loss of vision.

  • Photophobia

A patient with cataract in the eyes notices an intolerance to intense light with possible halos of light when looking at light bulbs (street lamps, car headlights when driving at night, etc.). The feeling is as if those lights are excessively bright and dazzling.

  • The Colors Seem Less Bright

The perception of colors with a vision with cataracts is altered as if they have lost their intensity or have faded.

  • Double Vision

Cataract in the eyes can also produce multiple images. Diplopia or double vision can be caused due to many different causes. This includes structural alterations of the eye, such as uncorrected refractive problems and retinal disease, misalignment of the eyes caused by strabismus, paralysis of oculomotor nerves, or some neurological or muscular problem.

Hence, it is crystal clear that cataract is not a condition that must be taken lightly. The minute you start noticing any of these symptoms, it is crucial to consult an ophthalmologist with immediate effect.